2 Types of insecticidal resistance in Pest Control.
- Temporary resistance: – This type of resistance induced by the environmental factors such as temperature humidity light etc. and it is for some time, it is not permanent
- Permanent resistance: – This type of resistance is developed by the heritable changes or due to gene manipulation. it is of three types
Monogenic: – The resistance for an insecticidal chemical is developed by only one gene.
Oligogenic: – The resistance for an insecticidal chemical is developed by few genes.
Polygenic: – The resistance for an insecticidal chemical is developed by many genes.
Vertical resistance: – When the insect is resistant to only one insecticide. Horizontal resistance: – When the insect is resistant to more than one or two insecticides.
Insecticidal resistance mechanism: -Insect can be resistant by the numbers of ways
Metabolic resistance mechanism: – Sometimes resistant insect may use their internal enzymes for breaking down of pesticides; they break down the pesticides particle faster than susceptible once.
The resistant insect may pose the higher concentration of enzymes than the susceptible insects. Sometimes theses enzymes are broad spectrum in nature they can degrade many types of chemicals.
Target-site resistance mechanism: – Target sites are those parts of insect body with which insect body reacts to kill them, but many insects modified or manipulate the target site to prevent insecticide to interact with that target site and become resistant
Penetration resistance mechanism: – Susceptible insect absorbs chemical more than the resistant insect, resistant insect modified their cuticle to be resistant.
sometimes extra growth found in the insect cuticle which makes them resistant to insecticide
Behavioral resistance mechanism: – Many insects changes their behavior if there is an application of pesticide occurred they may stop feeding or leave the area,
where the pesticide has applied this type of insect resistance reported for many classes including organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamates, and pyrethroids.
Cockroach outbreak, insecticidal resistance, type of resistance, causes of outbreak,
Introduction: – Cockroach outbreak means, any organism which is economically harmful to human being and increases
its population more than the ETL value (economic threshold level). Or a sudden increase in the population of the
harmful organism is called Cockroach outbreak. On another hand, insecticidal resistance is an ability of an insect to
survive against the continuous use of Insecticides and agrochemical. This resistance may be temporary
(environmental resistance) or may be permanent (develop by genes) both the term Cockroach outbreak and resistance is
directly proportional to each other, Cockroach outbreak depends on the availability of many resources which are
responsible for the growth and development of insect such as availability of food, favorable temperature, relative
humidity etc. and for resistance it can be easily said that that is a habit developed by insects for their survival
Cockroach outbreak: –
It is an increment in the population of any insect Cockroach more than the ETL value (economic
threshold level) or sudden increasing in the population of any individual sp. of an insect is called Cockroach outbreak
Reasons for Cockroach outbreak: – Cockroach outbreak is a sudden increment in a population but it takes a long time to
happen in any ecosystem. It can occur when the condition is favorable for the individual insect
An introduction of exotic insect species: – When any new species introduced to the area where it is not found
normally, it increases its population due to the absence of natural enemies and proper availability of resources for
their development, due to these condition their mortality is sufficiently reduced, causing population outbreak
An introduction of exotic plant species: –
When any new plant species introduced to a new biological
community, there are many insect Cockroaches which will feed on it and it will favor for Cockroach outbreak to occur.
High yielding varieties/cultivars: – After the development of high yielding varieties of food crop there is
sufficient amount of food for insect Cockroach which results in the quick multiplication of the insects and Cockroach outbreak
High amount of fertilizers: – Use of the high amount of fertilizers leads to vigorous growth of crop, standing
crop releases some volatile compounds by which insect attracted to crop and start multiplication due to
availability of food
Destruction of natural enemies: – Indiscriminate use of the high amount of Cockroach Pest Control insecticide leads to killing the natural
enemies with the Cockroach. And in the absence of natural enemies, Cockroach increase their population.