2 Types of insecticidal resistance in Pest Control.
- Temporary resistance: – This type of resistance induced by the environmental factors such as temperature humidity light etc. and it is for some time, it is not permanent
- Permanent resistance: – This type of resistance is developed by the heritable changes or due to gene manipulation. it is of three types
Monogenic: – The resistance for an insecticidal chemical is developed by only one gene.
Oligogenic: – The resistance for an insecticidal chemical is developed by few genes.
Polygenic: – The resistance for an insecticidal chemical is developed by many genes.
Vertical resistance: – When the insect is resistant to only one insecticide. Horizontal resistance: – When the insect is resistant to more than one or two insecticides.
Insecticidal resistance mechanism: -Insect can be resistant by the numbers of ways
Metabolic resistance mechanism: – Sometimes resistant insect may use their internal enzymes for breaking down of pesticides; they break down the pesticides particle faster than susceptible once.
The resistant insect may pose the higher concentration of enzymes than the susceptible insects. Sometimes theses enzymes are broad spectrum in nature they can degrade many types of chemicals.
Target-site resistance mechanism: – Target sites are those parts of insect body with which insect body reacts to kill them, but many insects modified or manipulate the target site to prevent insecticide to interact with that target site and become resistant
Penetration resistance mechanism: – Susceptible insect absorbs chemical more than the resistant insect, resistant insect modified their cuticle to be resistant.
sometimes extra growth found in the insect cuticle which makes them resistant to insecticide
Behavioral resistance mechanism: – Many insects changes their behavior if there is an application of pesticide occurred they may stop feeding or leave the area,
where the pesticide has applied this type of insect resistance reported for many classes including organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamates, and pyrethroids.